Active Fire Protection
A system or device that is designed to alert occupants, aid in extinguishment, or limit the spread of fire (e.g. sprinkler system or alarm system).
Annular Space (Annulus)
The region, measured in a straight line, between penetrants or between the outer most portion of the penetrants and the inside periphery of a circular opening, or the sides of a rectangular opening. Example: a pipe with an outside diameter of 4.5” centered in a 6" diameter hole has an annular space of (6 – 4.5) / 2 = .75".
Industry Standard Method of fire tests for through penetration fire stop systems comprised of an F-Rating, a T-Rating and a hose stream test.
Authority Having Jurisdiction or (AHJ)
The organization, office, or individual responsible for approving the installation or the procedure for the installation of fire stop materials.
Backing Material (Forming Material, Packing Material)
Material used in Fire stop systems (e.g. mineral wool, backer rod) to set the depth and provide support for the fill, void or cavity material.
Closed Piping System
Piping system which is completely enclosed, usually carrying fluids under pressure. Examples: hot/cold water distribution, sprinkler piping, chilled water supply and return.
Capable of undergoing combustion. Flammable, will burn away and add additional heat.
Construction Joint Fire Stop System
Three component design made up of the two adjoining fire rated assemblies, and the fire stop material(s) within the space between, which has been successfully tested by a specific product manufacturer in accordance with ASTM E-1966 or UL 2079 test standards.
Building materials installed to prevent the movement of air, smoke and gases to other areas of the building through large concealed passages, such as attic spaces and floor assemblies with suspended ceilings or open web trusses.
Absorption of energy during a chemical reaction, thus feeling cool to the touch.
The production of energy during a chemical reaction, thus feeling warm to the touch.
The time a fire stop system prevents the passage of flame through an opening and successfully passes the hose stream test as determined by ASTM E-814 and UL 1479.
Fill, Void or Cavity Material
A fire stop material (e.g. sealant, putty, elastomeric spray, etc).
A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall or floor assembly that is designed and constructed with a specified fire resistance rating to limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke.
A space within a building that is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including top and bottom.
Device inside duct to restrict the passage of heat, fire and smoke within the duct
A vertical assembly of materials having protected openings designed to restrict the spread of fire.
Fire Resistance Rating
The period of time a building's or buildings' component maintains the ability to confine a fire or continues to perform a structural function, or both. This is usually determined or measured by ASTM E-119 test standards.
Fire Resistive Joint System
A system consisting of specified materials designed and tested to resist the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste for a prescribed period of time in accordance with UL 2079.
A vertical barrier which extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
Penetration Fire Stop System
Three component design made up of the fire rated assembly penetrated, the penetrating item, and the fire stop material(s) within the annular space, which has been successfully tested by a specific product manufacturer in accordance with ASTM E-814 or UL 1479 test standards.
Hose Stream Test
This portion of ASTM E-814 (UL 1479) is done to represent the structural integrity of the fire stop system after it is exposed to heat.
A term describing materials which are designed to expand significantly (typically 2 to 10 times original volume) and when exposed to sufficient heat. Intumescent materials are often used as fire stops, particularly around combustible penetrants.
An optional measurement of the rate of air leakage through test samples resulting from a specified air pressure difference applied across the surface of the test samples.
An opening made through one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly, ie; a 4” x 4” electrical box.
A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not aid combustion or add appreciable heat to an ambient fire.
An assembly that has not been tested, or assigned an hourly rating in accordance with ASTM E-119.
Passive Fire Protection
A device or system designed to confine fire and smoke in zones (e.g. compartmentalization).
Penetrant (Penetrating Item)
Any item passing completely through a wall or floor, such as pipes, conduits, cables, etc.
The cross-sectional area of an opening that is occupied by a penetrating item(s). Typically found in UL Systems containing cables Percent fill may be calculated with the following formulas:
Percent Fill (%f) = (Aw/Ao) x 100
N = Number of wires
Area of Wire (Aw) = [3.14 x (rc2)] x N
rc = radius of wire
Area of Opening (Ao) = 3.14 x (ro2)
ro = radius of opening
Point of Contact (Penetrating Item)
When listed UL system drawing allows penetrating item to "touch" edge of opening.
Construction drawings generated by contractors, subcontractors, or suppliers to communicate what they plan to furnish on a project to meet the terms of their contract. They differ from contract drawings in that contract drawings are generated by the design firm and provided to the contractors and suppliers. Shop drawings are often marked-up contract drawings, but the supplier or contractor can also generate them from scratch. Shop drawings are part of the submittals, which are prepared so that the contractor can gain approval to proceed. They are reviewed and approved by the appropriate design professional. Areas where shop drawings are used include structural steel, miscellaneous metals, pre-cast concrete, and in some cases, fire stop
A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, which is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. A smoke barrier has no less than a one (1) hour rating. All openings must be protected.
A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.
A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of air and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system and, where required, is capable of being positioned manually from a remote command station.
The time for the temperature of the unexposed surface of the fire stop system or any penetrating item to rise 325° F above its initial temperature as determined by ASTM E-814 and UL 1479.
Penetrating items passing entirely through both protective membranes of bearing walls required to have a fire-resistance rating and wall requiring protected openings.
Type I Construction
Construction in which the structural members are noncombustible (formerly referred to as fire resistive).
Type II Construction
Construction in which the structural elements are entirely of noncombustible or limited combustible materials permitted by the code and protected to have some degree of fire resistance (formerly referred to as noncombustible).
Type III Construction
Construction in which all or part of the interior structural elements may be of combustible materials or any other material permitted by the particular building code being applied (formerly referred to as exterior protected combustible or ordinary construction).
Type IV Construction
Construction in which structural members i.e. columns, beams arches, floors, and roofs are basically of unprotected wood (solid or laminated) with large cross-sectional areas (formerly referred to as heavy timber).
Type V Construction
Construction in which the structural members are entirely of wood or any other material permitted by the code being applied (formerly referred to as wood frame).
UL is an abbreviation for Underwriters laboratories, Inc., a not for profit independent organization testing for public safety.
"Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire stops" (equivalent to ASTM E-814).
"Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Joint Systems" (equivalent to ASTM E-1966).
UL Fire Resistance Directory
UL publication which contains descriptions and ratings of fire stop systems.
An Underwriters' Laboratories certification mark that indicates compliance with UL requirements.
Vented (Open) Piping System
Piping system which is atmospherically vented by design to prevent backflow or vacuum.
Examples: DWV piping (drain, waste or vent).
An optional rating for through penetrations Fire stop systems. Determines the effectiveness of a fire stop system to restrict the flow of water. Class 1-rated fire stops have been shown to resist up to 3 feet of water column for 72 hours.